Find the appropriate ventilation mode, regardless of the manufacturer.

Use the filter buttons to narrow down the ventilation modes, browse through the overview, or search for relevant information by simply entering the name of the ventilation mode.


Ventilation modes

  • All
  • Volume controlled
  • Pressure controlled
  • Spontaneous
  • Hybrid
  • Closed-Loop
Volume controlled ventilation modes
Bei der volumenkontrollierten Beatmung wird das eingestellte Tidalvolumen (Atemzugvolumen) unabhängig der Atemwiderstände oder der Dehnungsfähigkeit der Lunge appliziert. Die Beatmungsdrücke ergeben sich nach der aktuellen Resistance und der Compliance.
Pressure controlled ventilation modes
Bei der druckkontrollierten Beatmung wird ein konstantes Druckniveau für die Inspiration (Pinsp) gewählt. In Abhängigkeit der Compliance ergibt sich das applizierte Tidalvolumen.
Spontaneous ventilation modes
Zur Unterstützung einer noch nicht ausreichenden Spontanatmung unterstützen spontane Beatmungsmodi das Offenhalten der Alveolen oder reduzieren die erhöhte Atemarbeit des Patienten.
Hybride ventilation modes
Als Weiterentwicklung der druckkontrollierten Beatmung kombinieren hybride Beatmungsmodi die bekannten Vorteile von durchkontrollierten Beatmungsformen mit den Vorzügen einer volumenkonstanten Beatmung. Dabei definieren die Anwender über die Einstellparameter ein sicheres Fenster, innerhalb dessen sich die Druckniveaus selbständig an die jeweiligen Veränderungen anpassen können.
Closed-Loop ventilation modes
Unter Closed-Loop-Modi können Beatmungsformen zusammengefasst werden, welche durch komplexe Algorithmen oder unterschiedliche Einflusskriterien sich selbständig an die aktuelle Patientensituation anpassen können.

Optional VCV
Optional VCV
X

Optional volume-controlled ventilation represents a technological advancement over volume-controlled SIMV. Rather than using the set respiratory rate, this mode uses the mandatory minute volume (f x Vt) as the control variable. The patient's spontaneous breathing effort is constantly monitored and compared to the set minute volume. If spontaneous breathing is unable to deliver the mandatory minute volume, a machine breath is triggered. If spontaneous breathing is adequate, no such breaths will be initiated. Instead, respiratory support will be maintained in spontaneous mode, usually with pressure support. In patients with no spontaneous breathing activity, ventilatory support is in the form of continuous mandatory (f x Vt) ventilation. In patients who stop breathing for short periods of time, the mandatory ventilation component provides an intelligent back-up system for apnoea ventilation.

Adjustable Parameters:

  • Respiratory rate (f)
  • Tidal volume (Vt)
  • Inspiratory to expiratory time ratio (I:E) or inspiratory time (Tinsp)
  • Gas flow rate (Flow)
  • Inspired oxygen delivery (O2)
  • PEEP
  • Pressure support (PS)
  • Pressure limit (Pmax)
  • Trigger
Manufacturer Comparable modes Nomenclature
Air Liquide - -
Puritan Bennett 980 - -
Dräger: Evita 4
Dräger: XL
Mandatory Minute Volume Ventilation MMV
Dräger: Evita V300
Dräger: Evita V500
Mandatory Minute Volume
Ventilation (Volume control)
VC-MMV
GE Healthcare - -
Hamilton: G5
Hamilton: S1
- -
Hamilton:
T1 / C1-C3 / C6
- -
Maquet - -
Mindray - -
Philips - -
Salvia: elisa - -
Salvia:
elisa 300 -
elisa 800VIT
Optional VCV / Optional Volume Controlled Ventilation Opt. VCV
Flexible VCV
Flexible VCV
X

A technological advancement over the optional VCV mode with a guaranteed volume for the pressure-supported portion of the spontaneous breaths. Rather than using the set respiratory rate, this mode uses the mandatory minute volume (f x Vt) as the control variable. The patient's spontaneous breathing effort is constantly monitored and compared to the set minute volume. If spontaneous breathing is unable to deliver the mandatory minute volume, a machine breath is triggered. If spontaneous breathing is adequate, no such breaths will be initiated. Instead, respiratory support will be maintained in spontaneous mode with adjustable dynamic pressure support. In patients with no spontaneous breathing activity, ventilatory support is in the form of continuous mandatory (f x Vt) ventilation. In patients who stop breathing for short periods of time, the mandatory ventilation component provides an intelligent back-up system for apnoea ventilation. Flexible VCV therefore combines the functional characteristics of optional VCV therapy with those of dynamic PSV.

Adjustable Parameters:

  • Respiratory rate (f)
  • Tidal volume (Vt), doubling as the target volume for the pressure support of the spontaneous breaths
  • Inspiratory to expiratory time ratio (I:E) or inspiratory time (Tinsp.)
  • Gas flow rate (Flow)
  • Inspired oxygen delivery (O2)
  • PEEP
  • Pressure limit (Pmax)
  • Trigger
    Manufacturer Comparable modes Nomenclature
    Air Liquide - -
    Puritan Bennett 980 - -
    Dräger: Evita 4
    Dräger: XL
    - -
    Dräger: Evita V500
    Dräger: Evita V300
    - -
    GE Healthcare - -
    Hamilton: G5
    Hamilton: S1
    - -
    Hamilton:
    T1 / C1-C3 / C6
    - -
    Maquet - -
    Mindray - -
    Philips - -
    Salvia: elisa - -
    Salvia:
    elisa 300 -
    elisa 800VIT
    Flexible VCV Flex. VCV
    PC-SIMV
    PC-SIMV
    X

    Combination of time-cycled, pressure-controlled ventilation that allows spontaneous breathing. Mandatory breaths are delivered to stabilize oxygenation and reduce the work of breathing. This method permits spontaneous breathing to take place in between mandatory breaths, Spontaneous breathing can be combined with an adjustable pressure support (PSV).

    Adjustable Parameters:

    • Respiratory rate (f)
    • Peak inspiratory pressure (Pinsp)
    • Pressure increase (Ramp)
    • Inspiratory to expiratory time ratio (I:E) or inspiratory time (Tinsp)
    • Inspired oxygen delivery (O2)
    • PEEP
    • Pressure support (PS)
    • Trigger
    Manufacturer Comparable modes Nomenclature
    Air Liquide Synchronized Intermittent Mandatory Pressure Monitored Ventilation PSIMV
    Puritan Bennett 980 Synchronized Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation SIMV: PC
    Dräger: Evita 4
    Dräger: XL
    - -
    Dräger: Evita V300
    Dräger: Evita V500
    Pressure Control - Synchronized Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation PC-SIMV
    GE Healtcare Synchronized Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation – Pressure Control SIMV-PC
    Hamilton: G5
    Hamilton: S1
    Pressure - Synchronized Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation P-SIMV
    Hamilton:
    T1 / C1-C3 / C6
    - -
    Maquet Synchronized Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation – Pressure Control SIMV-PC
    Mindray Pressure-controlled SIMV ventilation P-SIMV
    Philips Synchronized Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation, Pressure-Controlled
    Ventilation
    SIMV-PCV
    Salvia: elisa Pressure Controlled: Synchronized Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation P-SIMV
    Salvia:
    elisa 300 -
    elisa 800VIT
    Pressure Control - Synchronized Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation PC-SIMV
    VCV
    VCV
    X

    Conventional time-cycled and volume-controlled ventilation with a fixed mandatory minute volume. In this mode the intensive care ventilator performs the entire work of breathing. Through trigger activation and adjustment of the trigger level, mandatory strokes are synchronized with the patient's respiratory efforts and additional mandatory strokes may be initiated if needed. The controlled hyperventilation, which is desirable from a therapeutic point of view, results from the guaranteed respiratory minute volume (respiratory rate x tidal volume) and concomitant analgesic sedation.

    Adjustable Parameters:

    • Respiratory rate (f)
    • Tidal volume (Vt)
    • Pressure limit (Pmax)
    • Inspiratory to expiratory time ratio (I:E) or inspiratory time (Tinsp)
    • Inspired oxygen delivery (O2)
    • PEEP
    • Trigger
    • Inspiratory flow (flow rate) or inspiratory pause
    Manufacturer Comparable modes Nomenclature
    Air Liquide Volume-controlled ventilation VCV
    Puritan Bennett 980 Assisted/Controlled, Volume control A/C : VC
    Dräger: Evita 4
    Dräger: XL
    Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation IPPV, IPPV ass
    Dräger: Evita V300
    Dräger: Evita V500
    Volume Control - Continuous Mandatory Ventilation VC-CMV
    GE Healthcare Volume-Controlled Ventilation VCV
    Hamilton: G5
    Hamilton: S1
    Continuous Mandatory Ventilation / Continuous Mechanical Ventilation CMV
    Hamilton:
    T1 / C1-C3 / C6
    - -
    Maquet Volume Control VC
    Mindray Volume-assist/control ventilation mode V-A/C
    Philips Assist/Control, Volume-Controlled Ventilation A/C-VCV
    Salvia: elisa
    Salvia:
    elisa 300 -
    elisa 800VIT
    Volume Controlled Ventilation VCV
    PLV
    PLV
    X

    PLV is a specific variant of the conventional, volume-controlled ventilation mode VCV. By setting a pressure limit Pmax, inspiratory pressure peaks can be prevented. When the set pressure limit Pmax is reached, the flow is reduced (= decelerating flow). The tidal volume remains constant as long as a short pressure plateau exists.

    Adjustable Parameters:

    • Respiratory rate (f)
    • Tidal volume (Vt)
    • Pressure limit (Pmax)
    • Inspiratory to expiratory time ratio (I:E) or inspiratory time (Tinsp)
    • Inspired oxygen delivery (O2)
    • PEEP
    • Trigger
    • Inspiratory flow (flow rate) or inspiratory pause
    Manufacturer Comparable modes Nomenclature
    Air Liquide Volume-controlled ventilation VCV (flow pattern)
    Puritan Bennett 980 Assisted/Controlled
    Volume control (descending ramp)
    A/C : VC
    Dräger: Evita 4
    Dräger: XL
    Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation IPPV, IPPV ass (Pmax)
    Dräger: Evita V300
    Dräger: Evita V500
    Volume Control -
    Continuous Mandatory Ventilation
    VC-CMV
    (Pmax)
    GE Healthcare Volume Controlled Ventilation VCV (Plimit)
    Hamilton: G5
    Hamilton: S1
    Continuous Mandatory Ventilation
    Continuous Mechanical Ventilation
    CMV (Flow Pattern)
    Hamilton:
    T1 / C1-C3 / C6
    Maquet
    Mindray Volume-assist/control ventilation mode V-A/C (Plimit)
    Philips Assist/Control, Volume-Controlled Ventilation A/C-VCV
    (descending ramp)
    Salvia: elisa Volume Controlled Ventilation VCV
    Salvia:
    elisa 300 -
    elisa 800VIT
    Pressure Limited Ventilation PLV
    VC-SIMV
    VC-SIMV
    X

    Combination of time-cycled, volume-controlled ventilation that allows spontaneous breathing. Mandatory breaths are delivered to stabilize oxygenation and reduce the work of breathing. This method permits spontaneous breathing to take place in between the set mandatory breaths, which can be combined with adjustable pressure support (PSV) to assist the patient's work of breathing. 

    Adjustable Parameters:

    • Respiratory rate (f)
    • Tidal volume (Vt)
    • Inspiratory to expiratory time ratio (I:E) or inspiratory time (Tinsp)
    • Inspired oxygen delivery (O2)
    • PEEP
    • Pressure support (PS)
    • Pressure limit (Pmax)
    • Trigger
    • Inspiratory flow (flow rate) or inspiratory pause
    Manufacturer Comparable modes Nomenclature
    Air Liquide Synchronized Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation SIMV
    Dräger: Evita 4
    Dräger: XL
    Synchronized Intermittent, Mandatory Ventilation SIMV
    Dräger: Evita V300
    Dräger: Evita V500
    Synchronized Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation VC-SIMV
    GE Healthcare Synchronized Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation – volume controlled SIMV-VC
    Hamilton: G5
    Hamilton: S1
    Synchronized Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation SIMV
    Hamilton:
    T1 / C1-C3 / C6
    - -
    Maquet Synchronized Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation – volume controlled SIMV-VC
    Mindray Volume-controlled SIMV ventilation V-SIMV
    Philips Synchronized Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation, Volume-Controlled
    Ventilation
    SIMV-VCV
    Salvia: elisa Synchronized Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation - Volume Controlled SIMV-VC
    Salvia:
    elisa 300 -
    elisa 800VIT
    Volume Controlled: Synchronized Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation VC-SIMV
    PCV
    PCV
    X

    Conventional pressure-controlled ventilation.

    The patient's tidal volume is determined by setting upper and lower pressure levels, and is dependent upon overall pulmonary compliance. The upper pressure level is maintained for the duration of inspiration. In contrast to BiLevel mode, this method does not allow spontaneous breathing at the upper pressure level.

    Adjustable Parameters:

    • Respiratory rate (f)
    • Peak inspiratory pressure (Pinsp)
    • Pressure increase (Ramp)
    • Inspiratory to expiratory time ratio (I:E) or inspiratory time (Tinsp)
    • Inspired oxygen delivery (O2)
    • PEEP
    • Trigger
    Manufacturer Comparable modes Nomenclature
    Air Liquide Pressure-controlled ventilation PCV
    Puritan Bennett 980 Assisted/Controlled: Volume Control A/C : PC
    Dräger: Evita 4
    Dräger: XL
    - -
    Dräger: Evita V300
    Dräger: Evita V500
    Pressure Control - Continuous Mandatory Ventilation PC-CMV
    GE Healthcare Pressure Controlled Ventilation PCV
    Hamilton: G5
    Hamilton: S1
    Pressure Controlled Ventilation PCV
    Hamilton:
    T1 / C1-C3 / C6
    Pressure Controlled Ventilation PCV
    Maquet Pressure Controlled PC
    Mindray Pressure-assist/control ventilation mode P-A/C
    Philips Assist/Control, Pressure-Controlled Ventilation A/C-PCV
    Salvia: elisa
    Salvia: elisa 600
    Salvia: elisa 800
    Salvia: elisa 800VIT
    Pressure Controlled Ventilation PCV
    BiLevel
    BiLevel
    X

    Pressure-controlled ventilation that allows spontaneous breathing at any time.

    A combination of time-cycled and pressure-controlled ventilation that allows spontaneous breathing at both pressure levels. The machine delivers a breath every time the pressure changes from the lower pressure level (PEEP) to the upper pressure level (Pinsp). The tidal volume delivered depends on the difference between the two pressure levels used, and on lung elasticity (compliance). Spontaneous breathing at the lower pressure level can be combined with an adjustable pressure support (PSV).

    Adjustable Parameters:

    • Respiratory rate (f)
    • Peak inspiratory pressure (Pinsp)
    • Pressure increase (Ramp)
    • Inspiratory to expiratory time ratio (I:E) or inspiratory time (Tinsp)
    • Inspired oxygen delivery (O2)
    • PEEP
    • Pressure support (PS)
    • Trigger
    Manufacturer Comparable modes Nomenclature
    Air Liquide Pressure-controlled ventilation DUO-LEVELS
    Puritan Bennett 980 BiLevel BiLevel
    Dräger: Evita 4
    Dräger: XL
    Biphasic Positive Airway Pressure BIPAP
    Dräger: Evita V300
    Dräger: Evita V500
    Pressure Control - Biphasic Positive Airway Pressure PC-BIPAP
    GE Healthcare BiLevel BiLevel
    Hamilton: G5
    Hamilton: S1
    Duo Positive Airway Pressure DuoPAP
    Hamilton: T1
    Hamilton: C1-C3
    Duo Positive Airway Pressure DuoPAP
    Maquet Pressure control mode that allows unrestricted spontaneous breathing Bi Vent
    Mindray Ventilation with positive airway pressure at two levels DuoLevel
    Philips - -
    Salvia: elisa
    Salvia:
    elisa 300 -
    elisa 800VIT
    BiLevel BiLevel
    BiLevel ST
    BiLevel ST
    X

    A technological advancement over conventional BiLevel ventilation. Depending on the patient's spontaneous breathing activity during the set cycle time, either mandatory breaths are initiated or the patient is allowed to breathe spontaneously. Breath cycles are defined by setting a fixed respiratory rate (60/f). If the breathing activity results in the machine's trigger threshold being reached, spontaneous breathing will occur, which can be combined with an adjustable pressure support. If the patient fails to breathe spontaneously during the cycle, the machine will initiate a conventional BiLevel breath at the end of the calculated cycle time. In patients with no spontaneous breathing activity, ventilatory support is delivered in the form of the set mandatory minute volume (f x Vt, which results from the differential pressure). In patients who stop breathing for short periods of time, the mandatory ventilation components provide an intelligent back-up system for apnoea ventilation.
    This ventilation mode is frequently used as part of non-invasive ventilation or in postoperative respiratory support.

    Adjustable Parameters:

    • Respiratory rate (f)
    • Peak inspiratory pressure (Pinsp)
    • Pressure increase (Ramp)
    • Inspiratory to expiratory time ratio (I:E)
    • Fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2)
    • PEEP
    • Pressure support (PS)
    • Trigger
    Manufacturer Comparable modes Nomenclature
    Air Liquide - -
    Puritan Bennett 980 - -
    Dräger: Evita 4
    Dräger: XL
    - -
    Dräger: Evita V300
    Dräger: Evita V500
    - -
    GE Healthcare - -
    Hamilton: G5
    Hamilton: S1
    spontaneous/timed noninvasive ventilation NIV-ST
    Hamilton:
    T1 / C1-C3 / C6
    spontaneous/timed noninvasive ventilation NIV-ST
    Maquet Automode: PC <-> PS Automode
    Mindray - -
    Philips spontaneous/timed S/T
    Salvia: elisa
    Salvia:
    elisa 300 -
    elisa 800VIT
    BiLevel ST BiLevel ST
    Mandatory BiLevel
    Mandatory BiLevel
    X

    Pressure-controlled, time-cycled ventilation that allows spontaneous breathing at both pressure levels.

    BiLevel breaths are time-cycled via the set respiratory rate, but can also be initiated via a trigger function. This mode does not allow additional pressure support, nor does it allow mandatory inspiration time to be shortened in response to an expiratory trigger variable, which relieves the patient significantly. The tidal volume delivered is determined by the difference between the lower pressure level (PEEP) and the upper pressure level (Pinsp), and is dependent upon lung elasticity (compliance). Mandatory BiLevel is usually used in non-invasive ventilation.

    Adjustable Parameters:

    • Respiratory rate (f)
    • Peak inspiratory pressure (Pinsp)
    • Pressure increase (Ramp)
    • Inspiratory to expiratory time ratio (I:E) or inspiratory time (Tinsp)
    • Inspired oxygen delivery (O2)
    • PEEP
    • Trigger
    Manufacturer Comparable modes Nomenclature
    Air Liquide - -
    Dräger: Evita 4
    Dräger: XL
    Biphasic Positive Airway Pressure Assisted BIPAPassist
    Dräger: Evita V300
    Dräger: Evita V500
    Pressure Controlled - Continuous Mandatory Ventilation PC-CMV / PC-AC
    GE Healthcare - -
    Hamilton: G5
    Hamilton: S1
    - -
    Hamilton:
    T1 / C1-C3 / C6
    - -
    Maquet - -
    Mindray - -
    Philips - -
    Salvia: elisa - -
    Salvia:
    elisa 300 -
    elisa 800VIT
    Mandatory BiLevel Mand. BiLevel
    PC-APRV
    PC-APRV
    X

    With this modified BiLevel mode, the patient is allowed to breathe spontaneously at the upper pressure level (inverse I:E ratio), which is maintained throughout a long phase.

    CO2 elimination is achieved by briefly lowering airway pressure to the lower pressure level (PEEP). These brief pressure release phases allow CO2 to be removed from those areas of the lungs that are ventilated more quickly. The brief nature of the expiratory phases (Texp) also helps to prevent the collapse of lung areas that are ventilated more slowly.

    Adjustable Parameters:

    • Peak inspiratory pressure (Pinsp)
    • Pressure increase (Ramp)
    • Inspiratory time (Tinsp)
    • Expiratory time (Texp)
    • Inspired oxygen delivery (O2)
    • PEEP
    • Trigger
    Manufacturer Comparable modes Nomenclature
    Air Liquide - -
    Puritan Bennett 980 BiLevel with short release time APRV
    Dräger: Evita 4
    Dräger: XL
    Airway Pressure Release Ventilation APRV
    Dräger: Evita V300
    Dräger: Evita V500
    Pressure Control - Airway Pressure Release Ventilation PC-APRV
    GE Healthcare Airway Pressure Release Ventilation APRV
    Hamilton: G5
    Hamilton: S1
    Airway Pressure Release Ventilation APRV
    Hamilton:
    T1 / C1-C3 / C6
    Airway Pressure Release Ventilation APRV
    Maquet BiVent with short expiration time BiVent-APRV
    Mindray Ventilation with regular, brief, intermittent releases in airway pressure APRV
    Philips - -
    Salvia: elisa - -
    Salvia:
    elisa 300 -
    elisa 800VIT
    Airway Pressure Release Ventilation PC-APRV
    Optional BiLevel
    Optional BiLevel
    X

    Depending on the set minute volume (f x Vt, which results from the differential pressure), either mandatory breaths are initiated or the patient is allowed to breathe spontaneously. Rather than using the set respiratory rate, this mode uses the set mandatory minute volume as the control variable. The patient's spontaneous breathing effort is constantly monitored and compared to the set minute volume. If spontaneous breathing is unable to deliver the mandatory minute volume, a machine breath is triggered. If spontaneous breathing is adequate, no such breaths will be initiated. Instead, respiratory support will be maintained in spontaneous mode with adjustable pressure support. In patients with no spontaneous breathing activity, ventilatory support is delivered in the form of a mandatory minute volume, and includes all the benefits of BiLevel ventilation. In patients who stop breathing for short periods of time, the mandatory ventilation component provides an intelligent back-up system for apnoea ventilation.

    Adjustable Parameters:

    • Respiratory rate (f)
    • Peak inspiratory pressure (Pinsp)
    • Pressure increase (Ramp)
    • Inspiratory to expiratory time ratio (I:E) or inspiratory time (Tinsp)
    • Inspired oxygen delivery (O2)
    • PEEP
    • Pressure support (PS)
    • Trigger
    Manufacturer Comparable modes Nomenclature
    Air Liquide - -
    Puritan Bennett 980 - -
    Dräger: Evita 4
    Dräger: XL
    Minimum Mandatory Ventilation MMV
    Dräger: Evita V300
    Dräger: Evita V500
    Pressure Control: Minimum Mandatory Ventilation PC-MMV
    GE Healthcare - -
    Hamilton: G5
    Hamilton: S1
    - -
    Hamilton: T1
    Hamilton: C1-C3
    - -
    Maquet - -
    Mindray - -
    Philips - -
    Salvia: elisa - -
    Salvia:
    elisa 300 -
    elisa 800VIT
    Optional BiLevel Opt. BiLevel
    CPAP
    CPAP
    X

    In spontaneous breathing modes, positive airway pressure is maintained throughout the ventilation cycle, but particularly during the expiratory phase (= PEEP).

    Adjustable Parameters:

    • Inspired oxygen delivery (O2)
    • PEEP
    • Trigger
    • Apnoea ventilation parameters
    Manufacturer Comparable modes Nomenclature
    Air Liquide Continuous positive airway pressure CPAP
    Puritan Bennett 980 Spontaneous Breathing Spont.
    Dräger: Evita 4
    Dräger: XL
    Continuous Positive Airway Pressure CPAP
    Dräger: Evita V300
    Dräger: Evita V500
    Spontaneous - Continuous Positive Airway Pressure SPN-CPAP
    GE Healthcare Continuous Positive Airway Pressure CPAP
    Hamilton: G5
    Hamilton: S1
    Spontaneous Breathing Spont.
    Hamilton:
    T1 / C1-C3 / C6
    Spontaneous Breathing Spont.
    Maquet Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Spont./ CPAP
    Mindray (indirect) -
    Philips Continuous Positive Airway Pressure CPAP
    Salvia: elisa
    Salvia:
    elisa 300 -
    elisa 800VIT
    Continuous Positive Airway Pressure CPAP
    PSV
    PSV
    X

    Conventional form of spontaneous breathing with adjustable pressure support.


    In spontaneously breathing patients, pressure support (PS) is delivered at a fixed pressure value. This partially replaces the patient's work of breathing and allows deeper breaths. Pressure support is initiated once a relevant trigger threshold has been reached. While the patient initiates inspiration, the intensive care ventilator controls the timing of expiration (PSV Endflow).

    Adjustable Parameters:

    • Inspired oxygen delivery (O2)
    • PEEP
    • Pressure support (PS)
    • Pressure increase (Ramp)
    • Trigger
    • Apnoea ventilation parameters
    • PS Endflow
    Manufacturer Comparable modes Nomenclature
    Air Liquide Pressure Support Ventilation PSV
    Puritan Bennett 980 Pressure Support PS
    Dräger: Evita 4
    Dräger: XL
    Assisted Spontaneous Breathing ASB
    Dräger: Evita V300
    Dräger: Evita V500
    Pressure Controlled - Pressure Support Ventilation SPN-CPAP/PS
    GE Healthcare Pressure Support Ventilation CPAP/PSV
    Hamilton: G5
    Hamilton: S1
    Pressure support ventilation for spontaneous breathing Spont
    Hamilton:
    T1 / C1-C3 / C6
    Pressure support ventilation for spontaneous breathing Spont
    Maquet Pressure Support PS
    Mindray Pressure Support Ventilation CPAP/PSV
    Philips Pressure Support Ventilation; spontaneous breathing with pressure support PSV
    Salvia: elisa Assisted Spontaneous Breathing ASB
    Salvia:
    elisa 300 -
    elisa 800VIT
    Pressure Support Ventilation PSV
    Dynamic PSV
    Dynamic PSV
    X

    A technological advancement over conventional PSV.

    In spontaneously breathing patients, pressure support is delivered in a dynamic manner (for each breath, the level of pressure support delivered is adjusted to meet a set target volume). This partially replaces the patient's work of breathing and allows deeper breaths. Pressure support is dependent upon the set target volume (Vt), the extent of the patient's work of breathing, and overall compliance. A 'safe window' is created (Pmax and Pmin), within which the level of pressure support required adjusts freely on a breath-by-breath basis, at increments not exceeding 3 mbar. This support mode is initiated once a relevant trigger threshold has been reached. While the patient initiates inspiration, the intensive care ventilator controls the timing of expiration (PSV Endflow).

    Adjustable Parameters:

    • Inspired oxygen delivery (O2)
    • PEEP
    • Tidal volume as target volume (Vt) 
    • Upper pressure limit (Pmax)
    • Lower pressure limit (Pmin)
    • Pressure increase (Ramp)
    • Trigger
    • Apnoea ventilation parameters
    • PSV Endflow
    Manufacturer Comparable modes Nomenclature
    Air Liquide - -
    Puritan Bennett 980 Volume support VS
    Dräger: Evita 4
    Dräger: XL
    - -
    Dräger: Evita V300
    Dräger: Evita V500
    Spontaneous - Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (Volume Support) SPN-CPAP/VS
    GE Healthcare Volume Support VS
    Hamilton: G5
    Hamilton: S1
    - -
    Hamilton:
    T1 / C1-C3 / C6
    - -
    Maquet Volume Support VS
    Mindray - -
    Philips Average Volumen Assured Pressure Support AVAPS
    Salvia: elisa - -
    Salvia:
    elisa 300 -
    elisa 800VIT
    Dynamic Pressure Support Ventilation Dyn. PSV
    Proportional PSV
    Proportional PSV
    X

    In spontaneously breathing patients, pressure support is delivered at a level that is proportional to the set degree of compensation required in relation to resistance to flow (Flow Support) and airway resistance (Volume Support). This partially replaces the patient's work of breathing and allows deeper breaths. The level of pressure support delivered varies on a breath-by-breath basis, and is dependent on flow and inspired volume. For safety reasons, the upper pressure limit (Pmax) must be set, and the apnoea ventilation setting must be selected. 

    Adjustable Parameters:

    • Flow support
    • Volume support
    • Inspired oxygen delivery (O2)
    • PEEP
    • Pressure limit (Pmax)
    • Apnoea ventilation
    Manufacturer Comparable modes Nomenclature
    Air Liquide - -
    Puritan Bennett 980 Proportional Assist (proprietary algorithm) PAV+
    Dräger: Evita 4
    Dräger: XL
    Proportional Pressure Support PPS
    Dräger: Evita V300
    Dräger: Evita V500
    Spontaneous - Proportional Pressure Support SPN-PPS
    GE Healthcare - -
    Hamilton: G5
    Hamilton: S1
    - -
    Hamilton: T1
    Hamilton: C1-C3
    - -
    Maquet - -
    Mindray - -
    Philips Proportional Pressure Ventilation PPV
    Salvia: elisa - -
    Salvia:
    elisa 300 -
    elisa 800VIT
    Proportional Pressure Support Ventilation Prop. PSV
    HFOT High Flow Oxygen Therapy
    HFOT High Flow Oxygen Therapy
    X

    High-flow oxygen therapy (HFOT) can be used to administer functional CPAP therapy with adequate oxygen supply via special nasal prongs or non-sealing masks. The patient receives a flow of up to 50 litres per minute and the appropriate oxygen concentration.

    The focus of HFO therapy is on different modes of action:
    - functional PEEP
    - oxygen reservoir
    - assist in breathing through inspiratory flow
    - enhance secretion removal
    This may improve pulmonary ventilation-perfusion,
    reduce dead space and decrease the work of breathing.

    The effective CPAP level depends on the applied flow and the degree of mouth opening. HFO therapy is performed with humidified respiratory gas to prevent nosebleeds. With HFOT, CPAP therapy can be applied over a longer period of time. Since the method does not use an NIV mask, it is usually well tolerated by the patient, and mask-related complications are avoided.

    Adjustable Parameters:

    Manufacturer Comparable modes Nomenclature
    Air Liquide HighFlow Therapy HighFlow Therapy
    Puritan Bennett 980 - -
    Dräger: Evita 4
    Dräger: XL
    - -
    Dräger: Evita V500
    Dräger: Evita V300
    O2 Therapy O2 Therapy
    GE Healthcare - -
    Hamilton: G5
    Hamilton: S1
    Highflow O2 Highflow O2
    Hamilton:
    T1 / C1-C3 / C6
    Highflow O2 (C3 only) Highflow O2
    Maquet - -
    Mindray - -
    Philips - -
    Salvia: elisa - -
    Salvia:
    elisa 300 -
    elisa 800VIT
    High-flow Oxygen Therapy HFOT
    Dynamic BiLevel
    Dynamic BiLevel
    X

    A technological advancement over the well-known BiLevel mode with a guaranteed volume for the machine-driven component of ventilation. Spontaneous breathing at the lower pressure level can occur at the CPAP level or it can be pressure-supported. Instead of using the upper pressure level (Pinsp), the machine is programmed using a desired target volume.

    The machine delivers a breath every time the pressure changes from the lower pressure level (PEEP) to the upper pressure level (Pinsp). The exact level of pressure delivered depends on the set target volume (Vt), and on lung elasticity (compliance). A safe window is created (Pmax and Pmin), within which the upper pressure level adjusts freely on a breath-by-breath basis and at increments not exceeding 3 mbar. Dynamic BiLevel ventilation offers simpler operation and minimizes the risk of volutrauma or dead space ventilation following a change in compliance.

    Adjustable Parameters:

    • Respiratory rate (f)
    • Tidal volume as target volume (Vt)
    • Upper pressure limit (Pmax)
    • Lower pressure limit (Pmin)
    • Inspiratory to expiratory time ratio (I:E) or inspiratory time (Tinsp)
    • Inspired oxygen delivery (O2))
    • PEEP
    • Pressure support (PS)
    • Trigger
    • Pressure increase (Ramp)
    • PSV Endflow
    Manufacturer Comparable modes Nomenclature
    Air Liquide Pressure-Regulated Volume Controlled PRVC
    Puritan Bennett 980 Adaptation of the target pressure in order to deliver the set volume VC+
    Dräger: Evita 4
    Dräger: XL
    Synchronized Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation with Autoflow option SIMV-Autoflow
    Dräger: Evita V300
    Dräger: Evita V500
    Volume Controlled - Synchronized Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation with Autoflow option, PC-SIMV with Volume Guarantee VC-SIMV-Autoflow
    GE Healthcare BiLevel with Volume Guarantee, Synchronized Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation, Pressure Controlled, with Volume Guarantee PC-SIMV VG
    Hamilton: G5
    Hamilton: S1
    Adaptiv Pressure ventilation APVsimv
    Hamilton:
    T1 / C1-C3 / C6
    Volume-controlled, adaptive pressure: SIMV SIMV +
    Maquet Pressure Regulated Volume Controlled PRVC
    Mindray Pressure-regulated volume control ventilation PRVC
    Philips Pressure-Regulated, Volume-Controlled PRVC
    Salvia: elisa
    Salvia:
    elisa 300 -
    elisa 800VIT
    Dynamic BiLevel Dyn. BiLevel
    Dual BiLevel
    Dual BiLevel
    X

    A technological advancement over the well-known BiLevel mode with a guaranteed volume for the machine-driven component of ventilation.

    Spontaneous breathing at the lower pressure level can occur at the CPAP level or it can be pressure-supported. Instead of using the upper pressure level (Pinsp), the machine is programmed using a desired target volume. The machine delivers a breath every time the pressure changes from the lower pressure level (PEEP) to the upper pressure level (Pinsp).

    The exact level of pressure delivered depends on the set target volume (Vt), and on lung elasticity (compliance). A safe window is created (Pmax and Pmin), within which the upper pressure level adjusts freely on a breath-by-breath basis and at increments not exceeding 3 mbar. Dynamic BiLevel ventilation offers simpler operation and minimizes the risk of volutrauma or dead space ventilation following a change in compliance.

    Adjustable Parameters:

    • Respiratory rate (f)
    • Tidal volume as target volume (Vt)
    • Upper pressure limit (Pmax)
    • Lower pressure limit (Pmin)
    • Inspiratory to expiratory time ratio (I:E) or inspiratory time (Tinsp)
    • Inspired oxygen delivery (O2)
    • PEEP
    • Trigger
    • PSV Endflow
    Manufacturer Comparable modes Nomenclature
    Air Liquide - -
    Puritan Bennett 980 - -
    Dräger: Evita 4
    Dräger: XL
    - -
    Dräger: Evita V300
    Dräger: Evita V500
    - -
    GE Healthcare - -
    Hamilton: G5
    Hamilton: S1
    - -
    Hamilton: T1
    Hamilton: C1-C3
    - -
    Maquet - -
    Mindray - -
    Philips - -
    Salvia: elisa - -
    Salvia:
    elisa 300 -
    elisa 800VIT
    Dual BiLevel Dual. BiLevel
    Flexible BiLevel
    Flexible BiLevel
    X

    A technological advancement over optional BiLevel ventilation.

    However, rather than using the set respiratory rate, this mode uses the mandatory minute volume (f x Vt) as the control variable. The patient's spontaneous breathing effort is constantly monitored and compared to the set minute volume. If spontaneous breathing is unable to deliver the mandatory minute volume, a machine breath is triggered. If spontaneous breathing is adequate, no such breaths will be initiated. Instead, respiratory support will be maintained in spontaneous mode with dynamic pressure support.

    In patients with no spontaneous breathing activity, ventilatory support is in the form of continuous mandatory ventilation. The set target volume determines the change from the lower pressure level (PEEP) to the upper pressure level (Pinsp), and controls the extent of the pressure support delivered. A safe window is created (Pmax and Pmin), within which the upper pressure level or the pressure support adjusts freely on a breath-by-breath basis and at increments not exceeding 3 mbar. In patients who stop breathing for short periods of time, the mandatory ventilation component provides an intelligent back-up system for apnoea ventilation. Flexible BiLevel therefore combines the functional characteristics of optional BiLevel therapy with those of dynamic PSV.

    Adjustable Parameters:

    • Respiratory rate (f)
    • Tidal volume as target volume (Vt) 
    • Upper pressure limit (Pmax)
    • Lower pressure limit (Pmin)
    • Inspiratory to expiratory time ratio (I:E) or inspiratory time (Tinsp)
    • Inspired oxygen delivery (O2)
    • PEEP
    • Pressure increase (Ramp)
    • Trigger
    Manufacturer Comparable modes Nomenclature
    Air Liquide - -
    Puritan Bennett 980 - -
    Dräger: Evita 4
    Dräger: XL
    - -
    Dräger: Evita V300
    Dräger: Evita V500
    - -
    GE Healthcare - -
    Hamilton: G5
    Hamilton: S1
    - -
    Hamilton:
    T1 / C1-C3 / C6
    - -
    Maquet - -
    Mindray - -
    Philips - -
    Salvia: elisa - -
    Salvia:
    elisa 300 -
    elisa 800VIT
    Flexible BiLevel Flex. BiLevel
    Volume-adaptive BiLevel
    Volume-adaptive BiLevel
    X

    A technological advancement over the well-known BiLevel mode with a guaranteed volume for the machine-driven component of ventilation.

    Additional breaths can be initiated by triggering.
    Dynamic BiLevel breaths are time-cycled via the set respiratory rate, but can also be initiated via a trigger function. This mode does not allow additional pressure support, nor does it allow mandatory inspiration time to be shortened in response to an expiratory trigger variable, which relieves the patient significantly. The exact level of pressure delivered depends on the set target volume (Vt) and on lung elasticity (compliance). A safe window is created (Pmax and Pmin), within which the upper pressure level adjusts freely on a breath-by-breath basis and at increments not exceeding 3 mbar. Volume-adaptive BiLevel ventilation offers simpler operation and minimizes the risk of volutrauma or dead space ventilation following a change in compliance.

    Adjustable Parameters:

    • Respiratory rate (f)
    • Tidal volume as target volume (Vt)
    • Upper pressure limit (Pmax)
    • Lower pressure limit (Pmin)
    • Pressure increase (Ramp)
    • Inspiratory to expiratory time ratio (I:E) or inspiratory time (Tinsp)
    • Inspiratory oxygen delivery (O2))
    • PEEP
    • Trigger
    Manufacturer Comparable modes Nomenclature
    Air Liquide - -
    Puritan Bennett 980 - -
    Dräger: Evita 4
    Dräger: XL
    Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation with Autoflow option IPPV-Autoflow
    Dräger: Evita V300
    Dräger: Evita V500
    Volume Controlled - Continuous Mandatory Ventilation with Autoflow option VC-CMV-Autoflow
    GE Healthcare - -
    Hamilton: G5
    Hamilton: S1
    Adaptiv Pressure ventilation:
    Controlled Mandatory Ventilation
    APVcmv
    Hamilton:
    T1 / C1-C3 / C6
    Volume-Controlled, Adaptive Pressure CMV+
    Maquet - -
    Mindray - -
    Philips - -
    Salvia: elisa - -
    Salvia:
    elisa 300 -
    elisa 800VIT
    Volume Adaptive BiLevel VA BiLevel
    Dynamic BiLevel ST
    Dynamic BiLevel ST
    X

    A technological advancement over the well-known BiLevel mode with a guaranteed volume for the machine-driven component of ventilation.

    Spontaneous breathing can occur at the CPAP level or it can be pressure-supported. Depending on the patient's spontaneous breathing activity during the set cycle time (60/f), either mandatory breaths are initiated or the patient is allowed to breathe spontaneously.
    Instead of using the upper pressure level (Pinsp), the machine is programmed using a desired target volume. The machine delivers a breath every time the pressure changes from the lower pressure level (PEEP) to the upper pressure level (Pinsp).

    The exact level of pressure delivered depends on the set target volume (Vt), and on lung elasticity (compliance). A safe window is created (Pmax and Pmin), within which the upper pressure level adjusts freely on a breath-by-breath basis and at increments not exceeding 3 mbar. Dynamic BiLevel ventilation offers simpler operation and minimizes the risk of volutrauma or dead space ventilation following a change in compliance.

    Adjustable Parameters:

    • Respiratory rate (f)
    • Tidal volume as target volume (Vt)
    • Upper pressure limit (Pmax)Lower pressure limit (Pmin)
    • Lower pressure limit (Pmin)
    • Inspiratory to expiratory time ratio (I:E) or inspiratory time (Tinsp)
    • Inspired oxygen delivery (O2)
    • PEEP
    • Pressure support (PS)
    • Trigger
    Manufacturer Comparable modes Nomenclature
    Air Liquide - -
    Puritan Bennett 980 - -
    Dräger: Evita 4
    Dräger: XL
    - -
    Dräger: Evita V300
    Dräger: Evita V500
    - -
    GE Healthcare - -
    Hamilton: G5
    Hamilton: S1
    - -
    Hamilton:
    T1 / C1-C3 / C6
    - -
    Maquet - -
    Mindray - -
    Philips - -
    Salvia: elisa - -
    Salvia:
    elisa 300 -
    elisa 800VIT
    Dynamic BiLevel ST Dyn. BiLevel ST
    Dual BiLevel ST
    Dual BiLevel ST
    X

    A technological advancement over the well-known BiLevel mode with a guaranteed volume for the machine-driven and the spontaneous component of ventilation.

    Depending on the patient's spontaneous breathing activity during the set cycle time, either mandatory breaths are initiated or the patient is allowed to breathe spontaneously.
    Breath cycles are defined by setting a fixed respiratory rate (60/f). If spontaneous breathing results in the machine's trigger threshold being reached, pressure support with volume guarantee (= dynamic PSV) will be provided for the spontaneous breath.

    If the patient fails to breathe spontaneously during the cycle, the machine will initiate a conventional BiLevel breath with volume guarantee (= dynamic BiLevel) at the end of the calculated cycle time. In patients with no spontaneous breathing activity, ventilatory support is delivered in the form of the set mandatory minute volume. In patients who stop breathing for short periods of time, the mandatory ventilation components provide an intelligent back-up system for apnoea ventilation.

    Adjustable Parameters:

    • Respiratory rate (f)
    • Tidal volume as target volume (Vt)
    • Upper pressure limit (Pmax)
    • Lower pressure limit (Pmin)
    • Inspiratory to expiratory time ratio (I:E) or inspiratory time (Tinsp)
    • Inspired oxygen delivery (O2)
    • PEEP
    • Pressure support (PS)
    • Trigger
    Manufacturer Comparable modes Nomenclature
    Air Liquide - -
    Puritan Bennett 980 - -
    Dräger: Evita 4
    Dräger: XL
    - -
    Dräger: Evita V300
    Dräger: Evita V500
    - -
    GE Healthcare - -
    Hamilton: G5
    Hamilton: S1
    - -
    Hamilton:
    T1 / C1-C3 / C6
    - -
    Maquet Automode: PRVC <-> VS Automode
    Mindray - -
    Philips - -
    Salvia: elisa - -
    Salvia:
    elisa 300 -
    elisa 800VIT
    Dual BiLevel ST Dual BiLevel ST

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